Any defects in any of the above-mentioned factors can lead to female infertility. Furthermore, the human reproduction process must happen in the right order and at the right time for a woman to get pregnant. Below are the steps involved in the human reproduction process.

  • A matured egg is released by one of the two ovaries
  • The egg is accommodated in the fallopian tube
  • The sperm swims up the cervix and reaches the fallopian tube where it will fertilize the matured egg
  • The fertilized egg slowly travels down the fallopian tube and reach the uterus to implant itself
  • Once the implantation process is done, the egg will grow in the uterus.

Note that ovulation disorders are the main thing that can disrupt the above process. Some of the common ovulation disorders include polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovary failure, hypothalamic dysfunction, excessive prolactin production, etc. In addition, health issues such as endometriosis, damages in the fallopian tubes, cervical cancer, etc., as well can disrupt the human reproduction process in a woman.

Risk Factors

There are many factors which can put a woman at higher risk of infertility. Some of those red flags include the following.

  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Overweight
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Alcohol consumption


Obviously, it is recommended to consult a physician if you already have any of the above-mentioned health issues or symptoms. Apart from that, consulting a doctor beforehand can be helpful if you are above 35 years of age, and trying to get pregnant. They would carry out a number of tests in order to determine the underlying cause of your infertility. Some of those common tests include ovulation tests, hysterosalpingography, hormone tests, ovarian reserve test, imaging tests such as ultrasound scanning or sonography, etc. In rare cases, sufferers would have to undergo a laparoscopy surgery or genetic testing in order to find out the actual cause of infertility.


Infertility is actually a complex disorder, and doctors usually take a number of factors into account before deciding on a treatment method such as the underlying cause, the age of the sufferer, how long the patient has been infertile, etc. In addition, the personal preferences of the patient, time commitments, budget, psychological and physical factors, are also considered while crafting a treatment plan. Unsurprisingly, the treatment for infertility for different people may vary vastly. When it comes to the time period of treatment, how long the latter stretches would depend on the complexity of the disorder. Some women may conceive within just two or three months after they started their treatment. while for others, it may take multiple subsequent years to achieve the same.

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    About the Author

    Dr. Ghassan M. Al-Jazayrly, MD

    A graduate of University of Aleppo Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Al-Jazayrly or, as he is colloquially known: Dr. AJ, is an oncologist and hematologist of a Complete Care Community Health Center (CCCHC) with more than 36 years of experience. In recent years, he’s been involved with a non profit organization known as Every Woman Counts (EWC) which provides free breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to California’s underserved populations in order to eliminate health disparities for low-income individuals.

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